Europe in Crisis and in Transition


Last October I participated in the The European Civic Forums Civic Day and I was subsequently invited to write an article for their magazine ‘Activizenship’ which has just been published. I include the article below, it’s a bit of a rant but little has changed since the time of writing, if anything we continue to see the rise of right wing populism across Europe. The magazine tackles this issue head on with leading articles on the rise of Illiberal Democracy so labelled by Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban. While I offer a few examples of how citizens initiatives in France, Italy and Spain are challenging neoliberalism and austerity at the regional level the lack of alternative left opposition to austerity and neoliberal policies at the European level remains.

Europe in Crisis and in Transition

Europe is in crisis. It is a crisis of identity. Earlier this year the Eurogroup of finance ministers threatened the Greek people with economic collapse. They refused to negotiate with Syriza on debt and forced the Greek people to accept further austerity. This mockery of democracy and national sovereignty revealed the emptiness of any rhetoric of European solidarity and the true allegiance of Europe’s political elite.
In their action and inaction, again and again politicians tell us that these faceless ‘markets’ are our masters now. They invoke ‘markets’ as if calling on some mystical force, they tell us to ‘tighten our belts’ that we must offer sacrifice to inspire ‘confidence’ in the hope that we might receive blessings in the form of improved credit ratings. You know that you are dealing with ideology when it’s logics (free markets = free people) are blindly assumed as norms. The markets cannot fail. This belief that there are no market failures, only human failures, and that the only solution to human failures are market solutions is the dead end of the Neo-Liberal imaginary.
It was neo-liberal ideology of deregulation that led to the economic crisis but for Europe’s political elite to accept responsibility for their role in the crisis would mean admitting they were wrong. Those in power cannot accept they were wrong for to do so could be perceived as a sign of weakness. So they reject this interpretation of events and work twice as hard to convince themselves and their peers that they were right all along by forcing more and more of their neoliberal fantasies on the rest of us.
Debt, debt and more debt. In this Debt-tatorship, Democracy is only tolerated as long as it doesn’t interfere with hegemony of the markets. When ideology failed to produce results, as it has, the so called ‘centrist’ parties sought to distract people from the economy by blaming social ills on those least able to defend themselves. Politicians talk tough and play a dangerous game of divide and rule. Pitching struggling unemployed and working class people against minorities, migrants and refugees, ruling parties pandered to the sentiments of far right nationalists in turn giving legitimacy to their hateful narrative. The far right thrive on fear and uncertainty and depend on this to secure their path to power. As long as traditional establishment parties stay in power and continue to serve up more of the same zombie ideology Europeans will continue to live with uncertainty.

It seems that there is little today that inspires confidence in European democracy. Given the scale of the crisis it is understandable that many feel a deep cynicism about the capacity of government to contribute anything more than tokenistic gestures of support for greater democratic participation, social justice or care for the environment. The lack of political imagination on the part of the establishment has contributed to a weakening of democracy. However, flawed as it may be, if representative democracy is rejected by social movements the seats of power will continue to be occupied by the forces of tedium. There is one simple solution to a democratic deficit and that is more democracy, not less.

I admit I too have been cynical but I have probably paid too much attention to mainstream news media. If there is anything that the past year tells us it is that for better or worse political culture can change. We may not hear about it in the national and international news but at local, municipal and regional levels things are changing, citizens are organising and taking action, building inspiring alternatives, putting radical participatory democracy into practice and making politics and economy work for their communities. There are many examples but I share here just a few that I have found personally inspiring in 2015.

Participatory Democracy

To our collective detriment the electoral cycle keeps politicians minds focused on short term gains and quick wins. One size fits all government schemes almost inevitably run into conflicts. To overcome this it makes sense that the people most affected by decisions should have a say in the decision making process. Participatory Democracy aims to give citizens a greater say in decision making, it recognises the importance of the principle subsidiarity that nothing should be done by a large organization that can be done as well or better by a smaller and simpler organization. Putting legal mechanisms and structures in place that bridge this knowledge gap between citizens and government enables and empowers citizens to take a more active role in civic life. These efforts foster a culture of participation where citizens feel they have an impact and see the results in their communities. This is why participatory democracy is so important.
One of the most well known mechanisms is participatory budgeting and it is being adopted in many places from small rural municipalities to major cities.  In 2014 the Mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo committed 5% of the city’s budget an estimated €426 million over 5 years to participatory budgeting. This is the largest amount that any government has committed to participatory budgeting in history. Citizens initiatives that received support include community gardens, coworking space, composting and recycling initiatives, and more.

How can active citizenship be enabled and supported?

‘The Bologna Regulation for the Urban Commons’ is an inspiring document. It’s full title is the “Regulation on Collaboration between Citizens and the City for the Care and Regeneration of the Urban Commons”. Re-imagining the city as a Commons the document outlines how the city of Bologna provides a platform that enables and supports active citizenship, citizen driven social innovation and vibrant creative cultural life.
What is it that citizens need for an active civic life? First of all the regulation provides a framework enabling local government, civic and cultural institutions and citizens to collaborate and work together. Through these partnerships structural support is provided to citizens initiatives this includes access to work spaces, covering the costs of insurance, technical and administrative support, training and more. Neighbourhoods and citizens develop proposals for community and cultural initiatives or respond to tenders from local government to co-govern and co-manage community assets, such as public spaces and amenities. Citizens are not solely consumers of public services, when they participate in the decision making and management they inform the provision of those services in way that responds much more effectively to local needs. In this vision Citizens are co-creators. The Civic space is a Commons.

Municipal Movements

Few could have predicted that a housing activist could become the Mayor of Barcelona and yet this is what Ada Calou and Barcelona en Comun have done. Barcelona En Comun are deeply committed to radical democracy this is most evident in their non-traditional party structure which includes a federation of neighbourhood assemblies. It was through participation in these assemblies that activist won the respect and confidence of citizens and it was this popular support that enabled them to win the election. During their short time in government Barcelona en Comun have made big changes in the provision of social housing and introduced protections for residents threatened with eviction by the banks. They also introduced legislation that makes unused properties in the city available to citizens initiatives. Their achievements expand the horizons of the political imaginary and open the possibility for a transformative participatory politics in Catalunya. A politics that places the welfare of all citizens above narrow interests that serve only private profit and rent seeking. Barcelona En Comun are are joined across Spain by parties such as Podemos that share a vision for a new kind of politics. With national elections these parties aim to transform politics in Spain for the better.

It is vital to recognise and show solidarity with all those that dare to challenge the cynicism of our times. Each of these examples offers a different approach, but all represent important steps towards a more inclusive politics and offer a glimpse of what democracy in Europe can be. In learning and sharing in each others experience we can translate inspiration into action wherever we live.

Further Reading –

The challenges of building alternatives that scale


Alternative currencies should be considered an essential part of every communities tool kit for discovering and declaring a greater degree of economic sovereignty over their lives but are localised alternative currencies enough to challenge the power of a financial system that is global in its reach? Can the lessons learned in these communities be taken from the local to the global?

When we use local alternative currencies we place our trust in the community, as well as supporting the local economy personal relationships are reinforced through the use of the currency and it is these relationships of trust that essentially ground and back the value of the currency. Issues arise when alternative currency systems scale. The more people that use the currency the more difficult it is to maintain the kind of face to face relationships that secure trust in local communities. The state offers a solution to this issue of scale by providing currencies that are guaranteed through legal means. Trust moves from the community to the state.

You might ask doesn’t money issued by the state also support exchange that can foster trust and relationship building in the community? Well yes it does to a degree but this is secondary to the function of the currency as an instrument of speculation that puts communities in a vulnerable position to the dictates of financial powers who control the levers of the money supply. There are cases where local government issue complementary currencies and there are movements for positive money to take control of money creation away from private banks, but in the absence of enlightened politicians and effective change at the level of the state what more can we do?

Love it or hate it Bitcoin has had a huge impact in terms of challenging conventions and introducing a generation to new thinking about money. It’s important to distinguish between Bitcoin as a currency and Bitcoin as a technology. The Bitcoin technology as it has been implemented as a currency has a number of problems that will be addressed later. For now I will focus on Bitcoin as a technology to highlight two of its key innovations.

Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of a peer-to-peer currency. As software it is a purely technical currency solution and it enables people to make direct transfers without the need for a trusted third party such as a bank to manage the transaction. In this sense Bitcoin can be considered as a kind of trust-less system. Instead of placing trust in financial institutions or the state, trust is placed in the technical implementation of the algorithm—an open source code that is available for rigorous scrutiny and testing by the bitcoin user community to insure that it operates in a secure and transparent fashion.

The blockchain is a central component of bitcoin. It is essentially a distributed database that acts as an accounting system to publicly record all exchanges using Bitcoin. As the blockchain is distributed across the computer network of bitcoin users, the accounting system can’t be interfered with or corrupted by any one powerful user. In this way the Blockchain offers a reliable and secure technology for transactions. As Bitcoin is software this means anyone, anywhere on the planet with a computer or smartphone can use it. Clearly bitcoin has shown it has the capacity to scale globally and since information is borderless it represents a very real and public challenge to traditional finance and the state as it’s very difficult if not impossible to regulate.

To give a sense of the scale of the Bitcoin economy according to the current market value, as of June 2015, is over 3 Billion Dollars—that’s more than 2 Billion Pound Sterling (down from a peak of almost 13 Billion in 2014.) This brings us to the big flaw in how Bitcoin has been implemented as a currency as it is clearly not immune to speculative bubbles. The currency has proved to be highly volatile and, while it has overcome many of the trappings of conventional fiat money, it also reproduces the speculative culture typical of capitalist currencies. Some have also argued that the distribution of Bitcoin—with over 30% of the currency being held in as few as 100 wallets—not only mirrors the extremes of inequality that we see in fiat currencies but is in fact much worse. Recent efforts to estimate the Gini coefficient, a statistical measure of inequality based on income distribution, placed Bitcoin at 0.88—comparable to the extreme inequality in countries such as North Korea.

So returning to my earlier question, could the lessons learned from the experience of local alternative currency communities be taken from the local to the global to really challenge financial power? Now consider this. What if the technology of bitcoin could be implemented in such a way so as to support the scale required while at the same time placing human relationships at its core thus bringing together the best of both worlds. This is exactly what FairCoop have set out to do.

FairCoop describe themselves as the Earth Coop for a Fair Economy ( Its name is clearly inspired by the Fair Trade movement and is an indicator of how it sees itself. FairCoin is FairCoop’s implementation of Bitcoin technology and while it is a core component, it is but one part grounded by an ecosystem of tools, services and, most importantly, a community aimed at bringing about an Integral Revolution—the construction of an alternative economy networked at the global level.

The founder of FairCoop is Enric Duran infamous in his home of Catalunya, Spain as the Robin Hood who borrowed around 500,000 Euros from the banks at the height of the bubble and donated it to social movements in the region in what he declared a public act of civil and economic disobedience. Duran is now in exile and pursued by the Spanish state for refusing to pay back the banks. His actions are a direct provocation aimed at exposing the hypocrisy inherent in a system that confers the privilege to create money on private banks to the benefit of wealthy propertied elites whose speculation has subsequently been paid for at the expense and impoverishment of ordinary working Spainish people who suffered disproportionately the results of the economic crisis.

FairCoop builds on Duran’s experience as one of the founders of the Cooperativa Integral de Catalan (CIC). The CIC represented the first steps in what Duran calls the Integral Revolution. “In Spanish, “integral” means holistic, complete. That is to say, it concerns every single facet of life, and that’s what it means to us. The CIC’s objective is to generate a self-managed free society outside law, State control, and the rules of the capitalist market.” – Enric Duran

FairCoop’s approach is not simply a technical fix, as a democratically structured and open cooperative organisation, they reintroduce the human element that puts Faircoin at the service of the common good.

Anyone can buy and sell FairCoin, it is not exclusive to the members of FairCoop. However being bought and sold on the open market exposes Faircoin to speculative traders. FairCoop recognise this and take a number of steps to bring greater stability to the currency. The most significant is that FairCoop and its supporters hold a controlling stake in the currency, perhaps 40% or more of all FairCoins. FairCoop members are encouraged to save and with a large enough group this counters the negative impacts of speculation. Instead of spending FairCoins members of FairCoop will soon have the option to use FairCredit, a mutual credit system. Both FairCredit and FairCoin can be used to buy and sell goods and services through the coops online FairMarket which aims to be a kind of ethical ebay.

FairCoop is more than simply a means by which communities can buy and sell. One of the greatest barriers to the development of ethical projects that serve the Commons and the Cooperative Economy is access to finance. Venture capital demands that start ups conform to the conventional shareholder model with control of copyrights and patents part of the deal. Finance and investing in projects that further the construction of an alternative economy are a core part of FairCoop’s mission. They have created the Commons Fund and the Global South fund specifically for for this purpose.

Alternative currencies are nothing without a community who accept and trust them. It is the human element and the power of a community committed to principles of solidarity and cooperation that FairCoop brings to FairCoin. This is the strength of FairCoop and what makes it stand out as a grand experiment pioneering and challenging thinking about how we organise and construct much needed alternatives to capitalist economy.

This article was first published in the Summer issue of STIR magazine you can order it here –

Dada Maheshvarananda on Cooperation the Commons and Life After Capitalism

Back in February of this year I had the pleasure of attending a presentation by Dada Maheshvarananda who was visiting Ireland to promote his new book After Capitalism Economic Democracy in Action I took the opportunity to interview Dada to learn more about his views on Cooperativism, the Commons and the place of spirituality in movements for social change. Dada is an advocate of PROUT the Progressive Utilisation Theory an economic alternative to both capitalism and state socialism based on the principles of cooperation.

Special Thanks to Dada and to AFRI who hosted the event.

For More Information visit

Romanticism Today and some Serendipity


Another few images that have been sitting on my hard drive forever. Reflecting on Romanticism and the Environmental movement I did these collages of the work of the painter Caspar David Friedrich,  “Wanderer above the Sea of Fog” from which I took the figure in the foreground and placed against the “The Sea of Ice”. I’ve forgotten now where the background with the smokestack for the second image came from unfotunately. I like that this iconic lone romantic figure can be cut out and placed against different backgrounds bringing a reflective and comtemplative mood to the environment.

cinematic icebergs


I love serendipity. I had only posted the images above to the blog before I traveled to Germany to take part in a conference. Between conferences a friend and I went to Dresden and rented a car. We decided to stay in Bad Scandau which is probably only 10 or 15 km from the Czech border. It was only when I arrived at the hotel and started looking at the tourist leaflets that I realised I was in that landscape that inspired so much of Caspar David Friedrichs paintings and so I set out on little mission to visit some of the locations. With a little help from Wikipedia I located the Kaiserkrone which is supposedly where the man in painting is standing and of course we had to try and recreate the scene. I will update this post with a few pics over the coming weeks.



Community Gardens in Belfast

Its been a long time since I posted anything here but I recently came across this set of images which I produced during my time living in Belfast around 2008/9. At the time I was interested in community gardens and having heard that there were many so called victory gardens in the city during World War 2 and after, I visited the Belfast Central Library in search of old city maps. After taking some photos of the maps I overlaid the images on top of Google Maps and proceeded to visit the locations to see what is there today and how things have changed. Some of the gardens such as those on the Ardoyne road still exist while others have long since been paved over or built upon. However there are a few that are simply empty fields and I’m curious whether those same communities would have an interest in reclaiming such spaces. A project worth revisiting perhaps?








This Floating World

‘This Floating World’ is an exhibition of drawings, photography and video works by Kevin Flanagan

Opening: The Galway Arts Centre, Thursday June 10th at 6pm
Exhibition runs: 11th June – 2nd July

Flanagan’s work is inspired by the concept of emergence as found in both natural and man made systems.
The word territory can refer to both spatial and conceptual experience, an environment or an idea. Areas of knowledge unknown to us are often referred to as uncharted territory. The work of the cartographer is similar in many ways to that of the artist. However our images and maps of the world can never be total. As representations their creation always involves a kind of abstraction and separation from reality as such they are only ever partial and incomplete, rough guides at best and no substitute for the real thing.

Artists Talk on Tuesday 22nd June at 6pm

Galway Arts Centre
47 Dominck St

+353 91 565886

And you may ask yourself what have I been doing these past 2 years in college

Yes for all of you my adoring fans the time has come I completed my Masters in Fine Art at the University of Ulster Belfast in June and Im finally getting around to uploading images from my end of year show.


This is a photographic piece shot with my friend Eve Vaughan on a day out visiting the location of the field from the film ‘The Field’ by Jim Sheridan its on the road from Leenane in north Connemara to Westport. The film raises lots of issues about the Irish peoples historical relationship to the land. In these times with all that has happend between the recession and the collapse of the property bubble I was interested in revisiting this location.

The Field by Jim Sheridan –

Eve Vaughan also has a new blog where she has posted some documentation from her recent performances in Dublin

Eve in Space

I used the show as an oppurtunity to try an experiment in sharing. I got 500 posters printed I left them on the floor in the exhibition space I put a note with a cap beside them saying ‘ posters are free – if you would like to show your support for the artist you are welcome to leave a £1 or 2 in the cap’ I was delighted that so many people liked the work, its lovely to think hundreads of my posters found their way into peoples homes I was also pleasently surprised to find so many people showing their support by putting a £1 or £2 in the cap. The money collected from the cap covered almost half my printing costs and I still have at least 200 posters left which I’ll have to give away again at some future exhibition. So a big Thank You to all of you for showing your support. Its very encouraging. So to continue with the sharing if you like the image but couldn’t make it to the exhibition I am licencing it with a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Sharealike Licence for those not familiar with Creative Commons that means you are free to share and distribute the image, and to make derivative works , use it in your own work , remix the thing ,on the basis that it is for non commercial purpose and that you attribute me as your source of inspiration :)

The second piece in the show was a video installation.



click on the images below to watch the videos




A couple of weeks before I took part in the City Supplements show at Ps2 Paragon Project Space Donegal Belfast. We had a brief to make some work in response to the changing cathedral quarter of the city.

I made a few pieces based on a series of images found on google street view. The images follow the flight of birds through the area as recorded on google street view. I also made an animated video of the street for fun. Do check out the Ps2 site there where some nice pieces in the show and there are plenty of images on the site.


Line of Flight 72dpi small

click on the image above to get a better look

click on the image below to watch the video.


ok next up are just a few images that I was playing around with

camera in mirror

large circular mirror landscape copy

diamond mirror landscape copy

click on the image below to watch a sample video